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Bridge, the ²², X²V- XV²² centuries, XIV-XVII centuries, XI-XVII centuries (?) #732 | Foto
Ol'ha Plamenyts'ka, Yevgeniya Plamenyts'ka
"KAMYANETS'-PODIL'S'KYI- CITY ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE"
analised the "historiographic investigations" about the Old Castle
Bridge, we find out that it was mentioned in the documents of 1507, 1672, and
1685-1686. There are also some displaced graphic images of the bridge in the
engravings of the XVII century. No more other objective and graphic sources
about the earlier time of functioning of the bridge were not found by 40 authors
of the "conception". But they exist. For example, we could refer to
the evidences of the Russian merchant, Tryfon Korobeynykov, who visited the
city in 1593. He wrote, "there is a wooden bridge on the stone poles in
the place where the river meets. It connects the town with the island, surrounded
by the river". There are no mentions about the arch constructions of those
times. There is no denying that the bridge existed in the XIV-XV centuries,
as the functioning of the town and castle would be impossible without it. As
an important monument of town-planning, the Old Bridge has to be investigated
evenly. It is possible, that some graphic materials about it exist from the
XV-XVI² centuries, and are waiting for the researches in the archives of Poland,
Turkey and other countries.
Not having found more earlier documents than dated by 1570, about the bridge, Y.M.Plamenyts'ka and O.A.Plamenyts'ka, they appeal to archaeology and history to for "dating" the bridge by the ²²-²²² century A.D. They tried to produce proofs, that Podnistrovya had been so greatly influenced by Rome in the first centuries A.D., that a new cities had been built and trade had been very intensive there there.
To great astonishment, the architects point to the existence of the so-called Trayanovyi Val not far from Kamyanets' for the dating of the bridge. They also use fantastic information about the hydrological station, according to which "at the beginning of the ² millenium A.D. the canyon meant to be totally flooded by the Smotrych River and the bridge was built in the water, that almost covered the crest of the isthmus".
The question emerges from the statement, mentioned above, how to relate these statements with the monument, the Old Bridge, and to the constructive features and dating? It turns out, that no relation. Having not found real historical and archaeological facts as for existence of the Old Bridge in the ²²-²²² century A.D., the authors took into account the mortars, constructive peculiarities of the bridge and the iconographic materials and subordinated the facts to the dating of their idea. But where from the authors of the "concept" took the examples of the mortars for immuring of the pylons and lower arches of the bridge and what methods did they use for dating it so neatly (the ²²-²²² centuries A.D.) remains interesting.
The so-called second building stage of the bridge raise doubts too. The authors dated the bridge by the XIII century, because to their mind, its mortar is identical to the mortar, that was used while building the stone Armenian Blagovishchens'ka Church. This temple was wooden in the XIV century. It became stone not before 1280, but in 1597. This fact is verified in the written documents.
The fact from the "concept" in what way the authors could "see" the Kamyanets' Bridge similar to the relief of the bridge, that is painted on the column of Troyan in Rome is very odd. Because "the present look of the bridge forms a significant stone wall of the Botardo type" with "complete incrustation".
Though the metrological conclusions of the architects as for the constructive peculiarities of the bridge attract attention, but one must not forget that the linear measurements of the Roman metrology the town-planners of Europe successfully used even in the XV-XVII centuries. It was also typical for the Kamyanets' Old Bridge.
The problem of "functioning" of the bridge in the II-III century A.D. causes the question what was the purpose of building of the bridge? The answer may be only one - for connection of the opposite parts of the bridge. Not accidentally, in "the concept of the Dacks-Roman period of Kamyanets'" a new idea of functioning of the Castle fortifications and town in the ²²-²²² centuries A.D. raises. At the same time, O.A.Plamenyts'ka on basis of fantastic, not historical, archaeological and architectural investigations tried to prove, that the present Pol's'kyi Rynok (the Polish Market) (in the XVIII century, it was the Ukrainian and Polish Market) was formed in the process of long evolution. The so-called Roman camp of the ancient Petrydava of the ²²-²²² centuries, was at the heart of the evolution. In the Õ²²-Õ²²I century, the territory as though was the base of building of the city. Exactly on that base the square was completely formed in the XIV century.
â êîíòåêñò³ ³ñòîð³¿ Ïîä³ëëÿ: íàóêîâèé çá³ðíèê. - Êàì'ÿíåöü-Ïîä³ëüñüêèé, 1997.
- Ò. 1. - 124 ñ.; 1998. - Ò.2. - 64 ñ. (2 òîìè â îäí³é êíèç³).
².Ñ.Âèíîêóð, Ì.Á.Ïåòðîâ Ïðî ÷àñ âèíèêíåííÿ Êàì'ÿíöÿ: ïîãëÿäè äîñë³äíèê³â.
Kamyanets'- Podil's'kyi is one of a few cities in the world, that preserved its Medieval peninsula break-up. The Castle Bridge was built across the canyon of the Smotrych River in the western part of the Old City. The construction is interesting not only by its architecture but also by its history. A lot of historic events are bound with this monument: the Ustym Karmaliuk's escape from the Fortress, the infamous death of Yuriy Khmel'nyts'kyi who betrayed his father's, Bohdan Khmel'nyts'kyi, business.
The beginning of the building history of the Castle Bridge coincides with the beginning of building of the Fortress, and the necessity of the thruway that should connect the Fortress with the city. The first document, in which the Castle Bridge is described, dates back to 1494, it is the official document "About Passing the castles of Skala, Kamyanets', Smotrych, and Letychiv to new governor.
In 1593, the Moscow traveler, Tryfon Korobeynikov, visited the city. The impressions about the city one can find in his notes, the Castle Bridge is mentioned there too. "And in the place, where the River meets, there is a wooden bridge on the stone columns from the town to the island". This description allowed to restore the original look of the Bridge. The traditional method for that period, the bridge "on zheravtsi" was used during its building. It meant that a wooden flooring was laid on the stone columns. It could be burnt down or taken away in case of danger. The ancient plans of the city prove all mentioned above facts. Such plans are included: the plan of the city of 1633, the original of which was kept in the archive of the Foreign Affairs in Paris, axonometric plan of 1672 made by Kipriyan Tomashevych, and the plan of the city of 1693.
During the Turkish occupation of the city (1672 - 1699) the reconstruction of the Castle Bridge was made. The stone parapets with the embrasures have been built from the both sides of the bridge. They form narrow but well fortified corridor. The material (stone) for building was taken from the demolished Carmelites' Monastery. It is possible, that the works carried out there were rather substantial, because till today the Castle Bridge is called the Turkish one among people. Some researchers of the history of Podillia and the city claimed by mistake, that the Bridge had been built in the period of the Turkish occupation. In 1766, one more reconstruction of the Bridge was made. As a result of it, the original Medieval core disappeared under the thick faced layer. The vaulted embrasures of the Bridge were blocked up with stones, it gave the building look of the stone whole wall. The description on the stone plate testifies about those works. It is embedded in the southern wall of the Bridge.
During the XIX century, the Castle Bridge was repaired for several times because frequent floods caused damage to its bottom supporting part. So, in 1855, the repairs of the southern wall of the Bridge were carried out. In that period, the counterforts with the iron shanks appeared on it. The same year, works on the paving of the Bridge were began.
In 1862, a partly damaged tower (remains of so-called Castle Gate) at the entrance of the Bridge was restored, it harmonically fitted the architectural complex of the south-western fortifications.
In the second half of the XIX century, one more substantial reconstruction of the Castle Bridge was carried out: the stone parapets were demolished with the purpose of the widening of the road. The wooden pavements on the wooden consoles were made on the both sides of the Bridge, it changed the ancient look of the construction.
At the end of the XIX - at the beginning of the XX centuries little repairs of the Bridge was made.
At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, in the time of retreating of the Soviet forces, the bridge was blown up. It caused damage to the upper part of the road. The fascists that occupied the city, had to fix an important transport way to the West. That is why in 1942, the reconstruction of the Castle Bridge road was carried out.
On March 26, 1944, in the period of the liberation of the city, great battle for the Castle Bridge was held. The tankers of the 61st Sverdlovs'k Brigade and submachine gunners of the 29th Unechs'k brigade struggled there. The first who rushed into the Bridge were the warriors of the moto-shooting company of senior lieutenant, M.I. Kozlov. By means of the submachine guns they seized the bridgehead near the ruins of the city gate. The enemies tried to seize the Bridge with the purpose to blow it up. At the cost of great pains field-engineers platoon of lieutenant, Demydenkov, demined the Bridge.
The Castle Bridge is a silent witness of number of the historic events; the masterpiece of the building art. The Castle Bridge along with the Fortress and the Southern Defense Walls forms the unique Medieval ensemble, that has no analogues in the whole Southern Europe.
Íîâ³öüêà Ì. Çàìêîâèé ì³ñò \\ Ïðàïîð Æîâòíÿ. - Êàì-Ïîä., 1983. - 16 ëèïíÿ.
The Secrets of the Castle Bridge
The monument of the Medieval architecture, the Castle Bridge in Kamyanets'-Podil's'kyi
in the Khmel'nyts'kyi Region will serve people doubly. Haven saved the historical
and architectural value, this construction, as in ancient times, will tie the
streets of the Old Part of the city with the famous Fortress. By its second
birth, the ancient stone passage is owed to the expedition of the Kyiv Car and
The point is that in the place of the arched drawbridge, painted in the engravings of the XIV- XV centuries, the powerful wall was located over the canyon of the Smotrych River. Haven researched it thoroughly, the specialists established that it had been an original casing for the "vanished" bridge.
By means of the vertical prospect-hole they managed to get inside the wall, - candidate of the technical sciences, A.O. Shkuratovs'kyi, tells. - At first, they found one lancet arch made of rough stone. Then, the estimations about the central pier confirmed - it was revealed over the very weir of the river.
But what for the ancient builders have blocked up the cuts and hide their creation into the "casing"? It turned out that it was made for protection of the bridge from the humidity that damaged its main pier. They decided to strengthen the construction with the boulders and loam, haven "fettered" it into firm walls. However, till today water, piling up between the bridge and its casing, gradually ruins the span. With the purpose to strengthen the construction, the members of the expedition developed the project of its reconstruction. This job is not difficult. Only the branch ducts have to be laid there and the surface of the dam has to be covered with a special bitumen mastic.
Another proposal of the Kyivans also appeared to be original and effective - to uncover the bridge not entirely but partly, as the wall that surrounds it, is also an ancient monument. This unusual complex will became the picturesque stroke of one of the oldest architectural ensembles in the Respublic. Its use will give an opportunity to shorten the way between two parts of the city on 12 km.
×åðíèùóê Â. Òàºìíèö³ çàìêîâîãî ìîñòó // Êîð÷àã³íåöü, 1983. - 20 ñåðïíÿ.
Translated by Yana Anufriyeva
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