To the main menu | to the history page | to the articles list

LIBERATION WAR OF 1648-1654 YEARS ON KAMENECHCHINA

Translated by students of Kyiv avia institute

Liberation war of 1648-1654 years is one of the most prominent periods of history of Ukraine. In fact exactly then our people got rid of the Polish yoke, the Ukrainian state was then engendered exactly. Most events of this period take place exactly on territory of Podolya. But the special place in history of Liberation war occupies Kamenechina. Near Kamenets were passed fights (siege Kamenets August, 1653), on Kamenechchine under the Gvantsem (December, 1653) liberation fights, actually, and ended.

After signal victory under Korsun (on May, 26, 1648) Bogdan Hmelnitskiy began to send the troops on Right-bank Ukraine. On Podole the fight was begun by colonels And. Ganga, O.Ivankivskiy. The walls of Bar fell, Medgiboga, cossack-peasant detachments approached Kamjanets.

In the second half of XV²² age Kamenets-Podilskiy was a threatening fortress. The city was disposed on a rocky island which was surrounded by the Smotrich river. Round an island a fortress wall with many towers was built: Skornyagnoy, Potter, Reznitskoy. Kamenets united by a bridge with the Old Castle, that covered the city westerly. In the first fourth of the XV²² cent. to its north-western side the New fortress - earthen billows with casemates is built on, and between those billows the wide and deep ditches assessed by the cut stone. Contemporaries had all grounds to consider Kamenets unapproachable. Yet to the serious defensive the city was not prepared: the city garrison did not count 1000 soldiers, it was failing bullets, and in the New Castle - the proper coverage of towers.

At the end of August, 1648 an attempt to take city was done, but, unfortunately, it ended by a failure. Possibly, it was caused by the thing that the castle was stormed by the non regular troops of B.Hmelnitskyi, and local insurgents, headed S.Mrozovitskim. Besides, the city started get attacked by detachments of polsko-shlyahetsky army, and the revolt of Kamjanets citizens was disrobed. The danger to lose the city was not such threatening, but however existed.

The second siege of Kamentsa began at the beginning of November, when the B.Hmelnitskyi troops came back from Lvov. Cossacks stormed fortress together with Carpathians oprishky, which Gyria and Volk were at the head of. In Kamentse the attack was expected: "we here remain on the complete wish of God and see that if on us hlopstvo strongly came, would be does not look like, that we... could be defended". Assault was unsuccessful. It was had to begin the long period of siege, which was not hardly finished from the B. Hmelnitskyi truce with a new king of Rich Pospolita by Yan Kazimir. On August, 8, 1649 the Zborovskiy world in obedience to which almost all podolskiy land was included to Poland is signed. The getman again sends the troops for liberation of Podolya. Demko Lisovets gave orders to the ukrainsko-nogayskim army. Arriving to Kamjanets, insurgents got on the small military detachment left by the command of the Polish army M.Pototskim and M.Kalinovskim. Cossacks dashed him into smithereens and began assault which I.Bogun managed. Assault began from the side of Karvasar, on the signal given by Kamjianetsk petty bourgeois. But also this bout the Ukrainian troops were grasped by a failure.

Not long the Kamenets siege proceeded, a new about approaching of the enormous Polish army was broken.

After a battle under Rod, in June, 1652, B.Hmelnitskiy and his son Timofey with a khan by a Karach-bey went on Kamenets. A new siege of city began. Hmelnitskiy did not storm a fortress, and only fired from cannons. He wanted to compel an opponent to surrender, applying the method of long siege. About it he wrote to Polish community Kamentsa, offering it the capitulation. To Hmelnitskiy was said no. Helplessness of Khmelya in front of the walls of podolskoy stronghold was obvious. From the delay of tatars and epidemic, that began in an army, it was had to raise the siege.

Timofey was under the Kamenets walls only once, but his thoughts were near him yet long. It happened thanks to such event: when against father-in-law of Timofeya - Lupula began to militate the prince Walachian ²², he with the family escaped from the land. Timofey made to haste for help Lupulu. Just then the wife of Getman Rozanda together with a stepmother and younger brother found shelter in Kamenets, where one of the first applicants was a head on a hand Rozandi Peter Pototskiy.

But we will get back to the events of Liberation war. In August-September, 1653 military operations proceeded on Podole. Yan Kazimir walked up to Gvantsu and ordered to build strengthening for a bridge through Dnestr. B.Hmelnitskiy and Islam-Gireya ²²² troops walked up to Kamenets, turned in a rear to the enemy and cut off him from the bases of supply. At the beginning of December between quarreling sides, there were not numerous squabbles, but advantage almost was on the side of cossacks always.

Epidemics began in the Polish camp, hunger - forces of Poland physical and spiritual were broken. Such course of events was unprofitable to the Tatars, and on December, 15 a separate peace between Crimea and Speech of Pospolitoy was made. The conduct of subsequent siege was impossible. At the end of December Hmelnitskiy left Podole.

To my city the fate of another son of Hmelnitskiy is related - George. When in 1685 Yu.Hmelnitskogo was secondly recovered in position of getman by Turks, he began the getmanate with the numerous beating and mockeries above the local population. He obbiral and offended people regardless of public position, age and sex. Yu.Hmelnitskiy heavily offended one Jew in Nemirove, and that complained on George to Turkish to the pasha, that was found in Kamenets. Hmelnitskiy under an escort was delivered to the city. In Kamenets, at the Lyaskom (Polish) market, a court happened three pashey above Hmelnichenko. Judgement was passed - to smother a getman. His body was given up in the Smotricha waters from a bridge which is now named Turkish. So in Kamenets-Podolsk ingloriously the son of great Khmelya made off the life. Kamenets-Podolsk took prominent seat in history of Liberation war 1648-1654 Exactly this city was the outpost of Rich Pospolita in Ukraine, a gentry escaped here, retreating under the blows of the B.Hmelnitsk army, here Poland collected the troops, setting forth for numerous punitive actions. Kamenets was an unique city in Ukraine, which after 1654 year stopped behind Polish. And exactly near Kamenets, under Gvantsem, it was decided to go on an union with Russia.

It is needed to mention that the graves of the Ukrainian getmans in Ukraine were not saved, and the Yu.Hmelnitskiy ashes repose in the Smotrich waters. In my opinion, in Kamenets-Podolsk it is needed to set even a memorable sign about it.

Pavel Nechytaylo,
pupil of 11th form of the liceum #18