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The Russian Gate with the Towers and Fortifications - the Complex of the Costructions, the XV century. Preservation #734 | Foto

It is located on the right-bank belt of the canyon of the Smotrych River. Building of the Russian Gate began in the XV century, was continued in the 30-40's of the XVI century. According to the design it is analogical to the Polish Gate. The ensemble consisted of 8 towers, barbican and the defensive walls, joining them, 230 m long. They completely crossed the canyon, 90 m wide. There were sluices in the wall in the place of the crossing of the river-bed. In the XVI-XVII centuries, the coastal fortifications of the Russian Gate began to ruin as a result of the frequent floods. At the end of the XVII century, one tower and a part of another collapsed. In the beginning of the XVIIІ century, two more towers collapsed. In the 50-70's of the XVIII century, the system of the branch ducts was created, the walls were built along the coastal side, the stone walls were built near the Coastal Tower. In the beginning of the XIX century, the Russian Gate lost its defensive and hydroengineering function, and its rooms began to be used as the storehouses.
Today, the Russian Gate consists of the Patrol Tower, the Gate Tower, the Barbican, the Overgate Tower with underground gallery, semitower, the Coastal Tower, Casemate Curtain and the defensive walls.
The Patrol Tower of the Russian Gate (the XV century) was located on the rock, 12 m high. It is stone, two-tiered, round in plan, with the diameter of 7 m. The wall thickness is 0,7-1 m. The entrance to the tower is located from the side of the slope. The loopholes of the both tiers are with the arched tier plates. The laying forms the stay-put belt on the front of the tower between the tiers. The stone walls go aside from the tower along the edge of the rock.
The Gate Tower of the Barbican of the Russian Gate was built in the first half of the XVI century. It looks like a semicircular with a diameter of 6.6 m. It is a four tiered, with a floor wall thickness of 1.1 m, the rock of the opposite side serves for the wall. There are two entrances to the tower from the side of the yard of the barbican. All of the loopholes of the tower are with the sides, widened in both directions, and have the three-centered tie plates. In the second and forth tiers, their outside parts are made of white stone. The stone cannon-balls are set into the laying from the floor side of the elevation of the tower.
The Barbican of the Russian Gate (the XV-XVI, XVIII centuries) is a leading fortification of the Gate Tower. It looks like a rectangular yard with dimensions of 16.5 m - from the North to the South, and 10.6 m in the diameter. It is surrounded by the two-tiered defensive walls from the North and West. The Gate is located in the northern part. The barbican sides with the Gate Tower by its southern side, and with the rock - by the eastern side. The walls are made of stone, their thickness in the first tier is 2.2 m, and 0.5 m - in the second tier. The barbican is connected with the Overgate and Gate Tower by means of the second tier.
The Overgate Tower of the Russian Gate (the XV-XVIII canturies) is rectangular in its plan, with the axis of the passage of 8.2 m, and the width of 7.3 m. It remained to the height of two tiers. The passage is covered with the torispherical vault. The second tier consists of two rooms: the northern one, that is connected with the gallery of the barbican and the curtain of the Casemate, and the southern one is with two entrances. The Northern elevation of the Tower is coated by the white stone slabs. The memorial plate with the date of the repairs "1770" remained over the gate. The walls are crowned with the white stone cornice. The Southern elevation was rebuilt in the XIX century, and the loopholes were altered into the window-openings. The semitower at the Northern gate of the Overgate Tower remained to the height of one and a half tier.
The undeground gallery, L-type in its plan, is built on to the rock near the southern gate of the Overgate Tower. There are two loopholes in it. The gallery is connected with the Overgate Tower.
The Coastal Tower of the Russian Gate (the XV century) is located on 24 m distance from the Overgate Tower and is connected with it by the two-tiered Casemate Curtain. It is stone, five-tiered, square in its foundation, with the side of 7.6 m, and round in the upper tiers. The first tier is in the form of the arched corridor, 1.7 m wide. The coverings of the upper tiers did not remain. The loopholes in the tower are with chambers and fenestrations in the form of upturned keyhole; the fenestrations of the upper tiers are in the form of small window openings. The remains of the thin stucco are on the walls of the Tower.
The Casemate Curtain (the XV-XVIII centuries) is located between the Overgate and the Coastal Tower. It looks like two parallel defensive walls, that are located at the distance of 4.2 m. The two-tiered buildings are located between them. The North-eastern wall of the Casemate Curtain looks like a two-tiered wall with a number of cannon loopholes. Two tiers of the Casemate Curtain are covered with the stone vaults.
The defensive wall of the riverside of the Russian Gate (the XV-XVIII centuries) begins from the southern part of the Coastal Tower. It forms the L-type plan and consists of two walls of different times. A half of the territory along the riverside is rather ancient. The second part of the territory with the turn to the river dates from the XVIII century. The wall of the XVIII century remained to the height of 5.5 m. Its thickness in the foundation is 2.76 m. The loopholes within the area, parallel to the river, are with chambers and the sides, widened in both directions. The loopholes of the wall, that perpendicular to the river, are the cannon one and are extended to 2 m to the floor side from the fenestration, 0.65 m wide. Near the defensive wall, crossing the river bed, the area, 3 m long, remained near the rock of the left bank. There are the tracks of the sluice devices there.
In 1959-1960, the conservation and restoration works were carried out in some constructions of the ensemble. The towers and the Casemate Curtain were covered with the roofs. The wooden gallery of the barbican was restored.
The ensemble of the Russian Gate along with the analogical defensive and hydroengineering system of the Middle Ages of the Polish Gate is the only example of the similar constructions in the Eastern Europe.

Памятники градостроительства и архитектуры Украинской ССР; (Ил. справ.-каталог): В 4-х т./ Гл. редкол.: Н.Л. Жариков (гл. ред.) и др. - К.: Будівельник, 1983-1986

The Russian Gate, the XVI-XVIII centuries

The Russian population, which the Polish magnates forced out to the suburbs of the city because of rejection of adoption the Catholicism, built the defensive constructions. The Russian Gate is the most significant of them. It is situated in the south-western part of the city, and forms a separate fortress with 8 bastions and was the main entrance to the city from the South. Two towers are built near the rock, the third one sided with the Smotrych River in the place, where the sluice opened. The forth tower was situated in the far bank of the River. In spite of the Gate crossed the river bed, all of the towers were connected by means of the fortifications. In case of the alarm, the entrance to the Gate was closed by the grates, that pulled down from the second floor by means of the special mechanism. The last restoration of the Gate was carried in 1960.

Гуменюк С., Мещишин А. Хмельницька область. - Львів:Каменяр, 1968

Translated by Yana Anufriyeva
mail to:
yana@dekasoft.com.ua


The Patrol Tower. Preservation #734/1

The Patrol Tower of the Russian Gate (the XV century) is situated on the rock at the height of 12 m. It is stone, two-tiered, round in its plan, with a diameter of 7 m. The thickness of its walls is 0.7-1 m. The entrance to the Tower is located from the side of the slope. The loopholes of the both tiers are with the arched tie plates. The laying forms the stay-put belt on the elevation of the tower between the tiers. The stone walls go aside from the tower in both directions along the edge of the rock.

Памятники градостроительства и архитектуры Украинской ССР; (Ил. справ.-каталог): В 4-х т./ Гл. редкол.: Н.Л. Жариков (гл. ред.) и др. - К.: Будівельник, 1983-1986

 

Russian Gate

In 1527, the Russian Gate was built in the south-western part of the city from the side of the suburbs of Karvasary and the Rus'ki Fil'varky (Russian Farms). Only four towers, two-storied building, and part of the walls remained till today. Earlier, 8 towers and 100 m of the stone fortifications were included to the Russian Gate.
The entrance to the Gate was located on the right bank of the Smotrych River. It began with the oaken grates, located in the Overgate Tower. The entrance was also protected by two rock towers and zahab.
The stone defensive walls with the loopholes connected the Overgate Tower with the Rock one, and made up the 45 degrees angle westward in the direction of the River. Two small towers were built on the shoals of the Smotrych River. The stone plates, mounted into the towers, verify about their rebuilt and repairs. One of these plates with the Latin inscription is saved in the local museum. Its translation is the following: this Gate was built by efforts of the guard of the Royal Majesty.
At the end of the XVIII century, the majority of the fortifications of the Russian Gate was ruined by floods. The monuments, spared by water, later were ruined by time, disorderliness of the Tsar governors and vandalism of the fascist invaders. In 1980, the conservation and partial restoration of the Russian Gate.

Дроздовська А. Старе місто і його фортифікації.


Translated by Yana Anufriyeva
mail to:
yana@dekasoft.com.ua