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the X-XVIII centuries. Preservation #730 | Foto
of Kamyanets'-Podil's'kyi was firstly mentioned in 1374, in the document of
Prince Yuriy Koriatovych who was the owner of Podillia at that time. The archaeological
researches testify that the fortress existed in the Х-ХIII centuries. At first,
it looked like a typical Old Russian wooden defensive construction. The walls
and the towers were generally wooden but only partly stone. In the XV century
Podillia was captured by Poland, and Kamyanets'-Podil's'kyi became the centre
of the province, the important point of defence of Rich Pospolyta.
In the middle of the XVI century, under the direction of architect Yov Pretvych, the wooden fortifications of the fortress were replaced with the stone ones. The fortress looks like an elongated polyhedron, surrounded with high fortress walls with towers on the each angle. There is a one-tired pentahedral Black Tower with a well, 36 m deep and 6 m in diameter to the right of the eastern gate. There are 10 towers in the circle: Liantskopons'ka, Komendants'ka, Rozhanka, Vodna, Nova, Denna, Liats'ka, Tenchens'ka, Kovpak, and Paps'ka, or Karmeliukova to the left of the eastern gate. This last name the tower got in the XIX century, when Ustym Karmaliuk was prisoned there.
In 1672, Kamyanets'-Podil's'kyi city, like the whole Podillia was occupied by the Turks. They restored ruined fortifications but no significant constructions were included in the complex of the fortifications. Because of the location of the Turkish garrison the fortress and bridge were called "Turkish" among people.
In 1812, after joining Bessarabiya to the Russian Empire, the Turkish border was moved away, and Kamyanets'-Podil's'ka Fortress as a fortification construction lost its meaning. It was used for the location of the garrison, and then, it was used as a prison.
In 1928, the fortress as an ancient monument, according to the decree of RNC USSR was claimed as a Respublic Reservation, and in 1937, the museum and reservation was arranged there. In 1948, the fortress was included in the State Register of the historical and architectural monuments of the Union meaning.
Гуменюк С., Мещишин А. Хмельницька область. - Львів:Каменяр, 1968
by Yana Anufriyeva
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It is situated outside of the city. It is located at the only entrance to the city, a narrow (9 m) isthmus led to it. The original stone buildings of the Castle were built in the ХП-ХШ centuries. In the ХIV-ХV centuries and in the XVI century, it was expanded not once and rebuilt; its final look was formed in the middle of the XVI century. The Castle is not regular in plan (175х50 m), its nine towers have mashykuls with archatura on the stone corbels. The traces of the frieze, done in the technique of black and red sgraffito, remained under mashykuls of the Rozhanka Tower. The severe steep rock is a nature base for these walls and towers that are different in plan (round, square, and pentahedral) and in volume. Threatening greatness, picturesque surroundings and harmony with the landscape are combined in the look of the Castle. The typical features of Podillian School of Architecture may be seen in its architecture. The glazed tile with plant ornament and the reliefs with subject images, found during archeological dig, give an idea of decorations of rooms of the Castle. The pictures of the warriors on the horses which are very popular in the folk art attract attention. The doors, window shutters or the furniture and trunks were decorated with them. The martial spirit of the epoch of the stubborn struggle against the Tatarian and Turkish invaders is reflected there. The reliefs are formed in the grey loam in the wooden form, that has as a negative, graven image. This fact may explain their angularity and schematization of the form, but at the same time the images are very expressive. (pp.55-58)
ИСКУССТВА СОВЕТСКОГО СОЮЗА Украина и Молдавия
Автор текста и составитель альбома Г. Н.Логвин
Издательство <Искусство>, 1982 г. c
Фотосъемка А. А. Александрова, Д. Н. Гобермана, Г. Н. Логвина,
by Yana Anufriyeva
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From 1362 till 1434, the
fortress in the complex with the defensive constructions of the city became
the main forpost of the Lithuinian, and from 1434 till 1793, of the Polish rule
in Podillia, played the important role in the repulse of the Turkish and Tatarian
agression. In the ХV century, the Tatarian hordes Podillia for 28 times подверглась
нападению татарских орд, in the ХVI century - for 18, in the first half of the
ХVII century - for 5 times. The invasion of the Tatars in 1448, 1451, 1509,
1528, and Turkish forces under the command of Abaz-pasha in the 1833's were
the most destroying for the city and fortress. All these aggressions were successfully
repulsed. The fortress has won the fame in the whole Europe as an unassailable
stronghold. The fortress was in the centre of events of the liberation war of
the Ukrainian people. From August, 12 till the end of November, 1648, the fortress
and the city were in siege and repulsed the assaults of the troops of the local
rebels and kossacs of the Colonel, Maxym Kryvonis. On April, 27 till May 2,
1651 the cossacs under the command of the Colonel, Ivan Bohun desperately stormed
Kamyanets. In August, 1651, the Podillian rebels under the command of I.Alexandrenko
and Chuyko attacked the fortress unexpectedly and almost seized the city. At
the beginning of June,1652, the fortress and city were taken in siege by the
60 thousand army at the head of Hetman, B.Khmel'nyts'kyi. Some epidemic and
starvation that broke out in the cossacs' camp, did not let them to fulfil the
decisive storm of the fortress. In autumn, 1653, near the walls of Kamyanets'
there was 40 thousand horde of the Tatars. Simultaneously, in war time, hundreds
of fighters for liberty of Ukraine were tortured and executed in the fortress.
At the beginning of August, 1672, 300 thousand Turkish army at the head of sultan, Mahomet IV, and 40 thousand army of Tatars and cossacs of Hetman, P.Doroshenko, came to the city. There was two weeks vehement battle there. Meanwhile, the city top come to an agreement with the invaders, and on August, 18, they surrendered. As a sign of protest, the commandant of the fortress, Myhaylo Volodiyevs'kyi and Major, Hekling, blew up the powder-magazines of the castle. Along with them, 800 defenders died of the explosion. For the period of 27 years the rebuilt by the Turks fortress became the bastion of the Osmanian Yoke in Podillia. In 1699, by the terms of Karlovyts'ke Armistice, Kahryman-pasha returned the keys from the city and fortress to the Polish authorities. In 1711, returning from Pruts'kyi campaign, Tsar, Petro I, visited Kamyanets'and its fortress.
From the beginning of the ХVIII century, the fortress was used as a prison by the Polish government. In January, 1703, after tortures, the cossacs' Colonel, Abazin, was impaled, in 1748, the leader of rebels, Kleofas (Greek by birth), was executed, and hundreds of Haydamaks were tortured in the fortress. In 1734, Stanislav Avgust, the candidate for the Polish throne, was arested and kept there. In forty years, the plotters Pishyns'kyi and Frakenberg, who tried to kill the King, Stanislav Avgust, were kept in the casemates. A.Grabovs'kyi, stepson of the king mentioned above, was kept as a prisoner in the fortress, for exceeding his authority. Later, in 1794, he took part in the Polish rebellion under the command of T.Kostiushko.
On April 21, 1793, according to the Second partition of Rich Pospolyta, the city was passed to Russia. That day, on Pidzamche, the commandant of the fortress gave the keys from the city and fortress to the Russian Headquarters, and swore allegiance to Russia in the Cathedral. In honour of this event, the fortress saluted with 101 artillery shots.
Because of the Patriotic War, in 1812, the Russian troops were constantly in the fortress. Iin 1815, Konstantyn Mykolayovych Batiushkov (1787 - I855), a famous Russian poet and writer, served as an officer there. He wrote down his impressions about the history of the castle in the essay "Vospominaniya s mest, boev i puteshestviy" (The Memoirs from the Places, Battles and Travellings). In 1846, Rayevs'kyi (1795 - 1872) served in the fortress. He organized the Desemberist group "Zheleznye Perstni" (The Iron Rings) from the progressive officers.
From 1816 till 1914, the fortress stopped to be a military object and was altered into the prison for debtors, criminals and political prisoners. The activity of the leader of ante-feudal movement of the first third of the XIX century, public hero, Ustym Karmaliuk (1787 - 1835), is connected with the fortress. He was born in Golovchyntsi Village, Lityns'kyi Uezd (today, Karmaliukove Village, Zhmeryns'kyi Rayon, Vinnychchyna), in the family of the serf man. For his love to freedom he was sent to the army by the landowner. In 1812-1813, he served in Kamyanets'. Karmaliuk escaped from the Tsar Army and began an active struggle with the landowners. He was caught and in June, 1814. After that, he was conveyed to Kamyanets' (probably, he was kept in the fortress). According to the sentence, he got 500 blows by the rods. The second time he was kept as a prisoner in the Paps'ka Tower in the fortress in 1817-1818. This imprisonment was finished by the punishment of 25 blows of the whip in the town square near the Town Hall, marking with iron, and exile to Siberia. In 1822, Karmaliuk again found himself in the prison cell in the Paps'ka Tower. At night on March 12-13, 1823, he arranged the escape of 11 prisoners from the fortress, was wounded and in two weeks he was caught by the authorities and returned to the Tower. In April, 1823, he was punished by 101 blows of the whip in the square at the Town Hall, then, was condemned to penal servitude. Karmaliuk involved about 20 thousand of oppressed Podillians into the antiserfdom work, lasting till 1835. Since then, the Paps'ka Tower of the fortress was called Karmeliukova Tower among people.
In 1906, 67 political prisoners were kept in the fortress. Among them there was N.G. Kozits'kyi (1880 - 1920), a famous agent of Social Democratic newspaper "Iskra" (The Sparkle), one of the leaders of Kamyanets'-Podil's'ka group of RSDRP. His brother-in-arms, V.K.Cherniavs'kyi, S.A.Il'nits'kyi and others were in the same cell with him.
The fortress was declared to be a Historical and Cultural Reserve by the Decree of Soviet Public Committee of USSR from March 23, 1923. About 300 thousand of tourists visit the fortress every year.
At the end of the 30's of the XX century, a rectangular bay with the incut plate, made of white stone with the inscription, was made in the wall of the Karmaliukova (Paps'ka) Tower. On 18.04.1958 the memorial plate with the bas-relief of Karmaliuk and the dedicatory text (the autor Y.M.Ambits'kyi) was placed over the bay. The exposition, dedicated to the activity of Ustym Karmaliuk, is arranged inside the Tower. To the right of the entrance door to the fortress, the marble memorial plaque is placed (0,7 х 0,5 mm) with the portrait of V.F. Rayevs'kyi and the dedicatory inscription.
Sources and Literature:
Батюшков П.Н. Подолия: Ист. описание. - СПб. 1891. - ХХХІ, 264с.І
Сецинский Е.И. Город Каменец-Подольский. Ист. описание. - К.: Тип. Кульженко, 1895. - 247.
Dr.Antoni J. (Rolle). Zameczki Podolskie na kresach multanskich. - Wyd. 2. - T.l. - Warszawa, 1880.
Історія міст і сіл УРСР. Хмельницька область. - К. - 1971. - С. 22, 301-303.
Нариси історії Поділля: На допомогу вчителю. - Хмельницький, 1990. - С. 71-35, 94 -95, 125-126
Винокур І.С., Хотюн Г.М. Кам'янець-Подільський державний історико-архітектурний заповідник. - Львів: Каменяр, 1981. - 95 с.
Устим Кармалюк. Збірник документів. За ред. К.Гуслистого і П. Лаврова. - К. - 1948. - С. 9-25
Тези доповідей наук. конференції "Народний герой Устим Кармалюк (до 200-річчя від дня народження)". - Кам.-Под., 1987. - С. 7, 36, 37.
Баженова С. В'язні старої фортеці. //Радянське Поділля, 1982. - 16 червня.
Л.В. Баженов, В.П. Соловей
1. The text on the memorial plate in the bay: "The Tower # II. According to the deacription of 1544, it was called Paps'ka, or Yuliy's ІІ. In this Tower in 1818, 1823, Ustym Karmaliuk was prisoned here".
2. The text on the memorial plate (cast iron, marble crumb):
"1818 - 1823. In this Tower Ustym Karmaliuk was prisoned here for three times".
3. The text on the memorial plate near the entrance to the fortress: "Here, in 1816, poet-Decemberist V.F.Rayevs'kyi organized a secret political group "Zalizni Perstni" (The Iron Rings).
Л.В. Баженов, В.П. Соловей
by Yana Anufriyeva
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