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the XІV-XIХ сenturies. Preservation Number # 738 | Foto
1 Pol's'kyi Rynok Sq.
the Magdeburg right was given to Kamyanets'-Podil's'kyi. The house of Town Council
was built on the central square of Old Town for location of the elected machinery
In the XVI-XVII сenturies, there were the Russian, Polish and Armenian communities in the town. The Polish magnates constantly pinched the citizens of Kamyanets'. At first, they forced out the Russian community to the outskirts of the town, аnd in 1670, got the Decree of the Seym about the liquidation of the Russian Town Council. The citizens clamoured repeatedly against preassure of Polish Town Council and Roman Catholic Church. Especially great rebellion of Russian and Armenian population took place in 1667.
For many centuries, near the walls of the Town Hall savage punishment of that, who struggled for liberating the land from the oppression of the Polish gentry and свавілля of landowners were carried out. The Tzar's government-men violently punished Ustym Karmeliuk here, the ringleader popular uprisings on Podillia.
As a result of the restoration works the building of the Town Hall changed its outward appearance but for all that it has not lost its value as a monument of architecture.
Гуменюк С., Мещишин А. Хмельницька область. - Львів:Каменяр, 1968
TOWN HALL, the ХVI - XIX centuries.
Central Sq., (Pol's'kyi Rynok)
It is situated in the centre of Old Town, in Central (Rynkova) Square. A stone, two-storied building was built in the 30-40's of the ХVI century. In 1754, it was rebuilt. In 1817 and 1850, it suffered from fires and was repaired. The Town Hall tower adjoins to the building, combining the traits of the the Renaissance and Baroque architectural styles - it is rectangular, five-storied house, high, with a dome and a spire. In 1756, two bells were placed (оne of them remained till today, the other one has been in the funds of the historical museum) in the tower, belted with balconies on two tiers, in 1884, the mechanical clock was placed on the tower, it works till present. The front of the building is decorated with monumental balcony with stone stairs on each side. There is an entrance to the ground floor under it and to large stone dungeons, connected by secret passages with Dominican and Frantsyskans'kyi Roman Catholic Churches of Old Town.
According to the Magdeburg right a town self-government - the town council, was located in the Town Hall from the 40's of the ХVI century to 1870. Till the end of the ХVIII century, it considered to be Polish. In 1790, the local Russian Town Council formed a part of it. The paper work had been kept in Polish till 1831, but later- in Russian. The Town Council, which for years was formed of the representatives of the higher nobles, clergy, the top of merchant class and guilds of the town, keep house, pleaded cases, being at the same time a deliberative body of the town majors and seniormen, аnd from 1795 - of the governors of Kamyanets'-Podil's'kyi.
The presence in the Town Hall's casemates of the prisons, cells for torture and work of the court of inquisition here in the ХVII century have brought sad fame to it. In front of the balcony of the Town Hall, on so-called place of execution, in 1611, the Jesuits burnt down the books of Panivtsi's Protestant cultural and educational printing-house, in the first half of the ХVII century, a lot of "heretics" were executed there. In the ХVII century, scores of gaydamaks were executed there. In 1814, 1818 and 1823, according to the sentence of the Tzar's Court Ustym Karmaliuk, the leader of аntifeudal movement on Podillia in the 10-30's of the XIX century, was tortured there by 500 blows of rods, 25 - by lash, 101 - by sticks, also he was branded with red-hot iron.
From 1870 to the beginning of the XX century, the police department was located in the building of the Town Hall. In the 20-30's, different institutions were located there.
The Town Hall has become a symbol of liberation of the town from the German-fascist invaders. On March 26, 1944, around 10 a.m. the Soviet warriors of the 10th guards Ural Tank Corps rushed into Old Town under embittered fire of enemy and hung out Red Flag on the Town Hall.
In the 50's, the fire-brigade was located in the building of the Town Hall. From 1962, the Town Hall it belongs to the historical reserve museum, and show-rooms are opened there. The souvenir shop is situated there since 1989, the products of the local skilled craftsmen and artists are selled there.
From 1986 till today, the square near the Town Hall has become a place of carring out city holidays, different events, concerts. In 1999, the restoration works were carried out in the Town Hall and adjacent to it part of Pol's'kyi Rynok Square was restored too.
LITERATURE AND SOURCES
Сецинский Е. Город Каменец-Подольский. Историческое описание. - К., 1895. - С.
Винокур I.С., Хотюн Г.М. Кам'янець-Подільський державний історико-архітектурний заповідник. - Львів: Каменяр, 1931.
Архив Юго-Западной России. Ч. VII. - Т.I. Акты о заселении Юго-Западной России. - К., 1986. - С. 85,647 и др.
Prusiewicz A. Kamieniec-Podolski. Szkic historyczno-topograficzny. - Wilno. - 1915. - С. 14 - 16.
The Town Hall
The house of the former Town Council, built in the XVI century, remained till today in the central square of the town. A lot of historical events are tied with this historical monument.
Kamyanets', as an important trade centre on the way between the Eastern and Western Europe, received the Magdeburian Right (i.e.the autonomy) in 1432. The Starosta (Chairman) of the town and the Advisers were elected from the town's rich people. Haven gained Podillia in 1434, Polish gentry began to appoint their representatives as the Starostas. The House of the Town Council became the property of the Polish Community. In the plans of the XVII century, its roof is pointed, the low one-storied houses are attached to it.
In the Middle Ages, there were three communities in the city: the Russian, Polish and Armenian. The Polish Town Council oppressed the rights of the citizens of Kamyanets'. Only a small part of the land along the bank of the River Smotrych, in the suburbs of the town, was given to the Russian Community. In 1670, according to the decree of the Seym, the Russian Town Council was liquidated. The citizens were against the preassure of the Catholic Town Council. The revolts of the peasants and the town's poor were cruely suppressed by the Polish Magnates and the Catholic Church. The corporal punishments were carried out near the walls of the Town Hall. The administration was located on the second floor. The sittings of the court were conducted there. The inquisition made its dirty deeds in the lower floors. The archival documents say that in 1734, the savage punishment of the member of the Gaydamats'kyi Rukh (the Gaydamak's Movement), Ivan Klobuts'kyi, was conducted there. In public, in Liads'kyi Rynok (that time name of the part of the Central Square), in front of the house of the Town Hall Klobuts'kyi was tortured by means of fire.
According to the Magdeburian Right, the Court of the Town Hall could inflict the capital punishment to the citizen for small guilts. The Kamyanets' Town Hall had the executioner for such cases.Other towns of Podillia didn`t have the executioner. The corporal punishments in front of the Town Hall were made till 1840. The sentences and orders for the citizens were passed from the balcony of the Town Hall. In 1793, the manifesto about the unification of Podillia with Russia was passed on the square. There, near the Town Hall, the last Polish garrison of the fortress swore an oath about the transferring to the service for Russia. The Polish Town Hall was canceled. Its buildings were used as the town council and the halls of the court. After passing the sentences of the court in front of the house the corporal punishments were executed. In March, 1823, for escape from the Fortress of Kamyanets' (it had been the Prison Castle at that time), arranged by the leader of the peasant uprisings, Ustym Karmaliuk, the court of the province passed the sentence: to punish Karmaliuk with 101 blows of whip, to brand him with red-hot iron and to make a brand on his forehead. The Tsar's satraps executed that sentence over brave people's avenger in the square in front of the Town Hall.
The restoration works were carried out in the house of the Town Hall in 1754. The memorial plate over the entrance to the building testifies that fact. The coat of arms of Podillia is walled into the pediment of the building. It is the shining sun, the symbol of the rich and fertile land of our corner of the world.
In 1884, the clock with two bells was placed in the Town Hall. The bells were founded by the Lviv craftsman, Fedir Polians'kyi. They represented very interesting artistic work with rich figuration and the inscription of the surname of the author and the date of production. In 1817 and 1850, the fires in the town damaged the Town Hall a lot. The restoration works, carried out later, altered the architecture of the building.
The pointed low tower was built opposite the building of the Town Hall in the XVII century. The Armenian Well is located in it. Its history is interesting too. At the beginning of the XVII century, wealthy Armenian merchant, Narzes, granted certain sum of money for building of the water pipe in the city of Kamyanets'. It is not known where those money have dissapeared but in 1638, the resolution about building of the well by the citizens of the town was made. The well was made in the compact rock but the water turned to be salty, and the well was closed. The tower began to be used as the store building.
In the Middle Ages, the scaffold for corporal punishments was located between the well and the building of the Town Hall.
Till 1917, the police office was located in the building of the Town Hall. In the period of the Great Patriotic War, the German and fascist invaders have ruined a lot of architectural monuments of the town, including the Town Hall. The bells were threw down, they were broken while falling. The bell was also ruined.
On March 26, 1944, a red flag was rosen by the Soviet soldiers liberators over the Town Hall. In the post war period the restoration works were carried out and the clock was also restored. In the future it is planned to open the picture gallery of the works of Podillian artists in the building of the Town Hall.
N. KOZLOVA, the manageress of the funds of the Historical Museum-Reserve
Translated by Yana Anufriyeva
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